Friday, November 22, 2013

Netapp: How to create VLANS on a Vif

Netapp: How to create VLANS on a Vif

How to create VLANs on a Vif
View Environment section
I want to aggregate bandwidth and allow the filer to load balance across multiple subnets.
Management on 192.168.x.x
Server to Server on 172.32.x.x
Production on 10.x.x.x
I want to place the management VLAN on a vif used by Server to Server, Production traffic, or place all traffic on 1 vif across multiple ports to allow maximum bandwidth for production during peak hours and Server to Server backup during non peak hours.
How do I create VLANs on a Vif?
Keywords: aggregated
1. Create vif  (Do not hyphenate vif name. The ifconfig will attempt to use the first hyphen to identify the VLAN ID)
2. Create VLANs on the vif (substitute the vif name for the interface name)
3. Configure VLAN interface(s)
Vif create multi Vif1 e0a e0b e0c e0d
Vlan create Vif1 10 172 192
Ifconfig Vif1-10 10.x.x.x netmask 255.x.x.x
Ifconfig Vif1-172 172.32.x.x netmask 255.x.x.x
Ifconfig Vif1-192 192.168.x.x netmask 255.x.x.x
If the Filer is part of a cluster, the partner command may be used.
Ifconfig Vif1-10 10.x.x.x netmask 255.x.x.x Partner Vif1-10
Ifconfig Vif1-10 Partner Vif1-10
To make these configurations persistent across reboots, these commands must be added to the /etc/rc file.
Prior to Ontap 7.3.3, when using Vlans on a Vif, changing the MTU size could affect all Vlans.
For example:
Configuring vif1-10 with an MTU of 9000 (jumbo frames) wouldl change the MTU of all Vlans  and interfaces. This could cause the filer to send packets larger than the hosts other Vlans can process and result in poor or no connectivity on these hosts/Vlans.
Configuring an interface in a VLAN
Using the ifconfig command, you can configure all the parameters for a VLAN interface that you can for a physical interface. The parameters you can configure are
* IP address
* Network mask
* Interface status
* Media type
* MTU size
* Flow control
* Partner
Enter the following command:
ifconfig ifname-vlanid IP_address netmask mask
ifname-vlanid is the VLAN interface name.
IP_address is the IP address for this interface.
mask is the network mask for this interface.
You can configure a VLAN interface e4-10, created in the previous example, using the following command:
ifconfig e4-10 netmask

Friday, November 8, 2013

Howto enable passwordless SSH on NetApp filer

When working in an environment with lots of filer servers, you might consider enable password less SSH on the filer for easier administration (from some administration host).
The concept stays the same, public keys exchange, but as you know the NetApp OnTapp OS uses slightly different syntax, so I decided to write this small guide that will help you out:

OK, let's get busy , I'll assume that the filer has already has networking configured correctly.

1) The filer does not have SSH enabled by default, so login via telnet:
admin_host> telnet filer01

2) Set up root password:
filer01> passwd

3) Next, you need to enable SSH (preferably version 2 - as it's more secure):
filer01> secureadmin enable ssh2
filer01> secureadmin setup ssh

4) Make sure you exports file is edited correctly and vol0 is exported to admin_host
admin_host> showmount -e filer01

You can edit exports file from the filer with "wrfile" command, if you have modified the file remmember to re-export the new exports with:

filer01 >exportfs -av

5) Next, mount  vol0 from the NetApp filer on the amdministration host:

admin_host> mkdir -p /nfs/filer01/vol0
admin_host> mount -t nfs filer01:/vol/vol0 /nfs/filer01/vol0

Check that you see the mounted volume:

admin_host> ls /nfs/filer01/vol0

If not you're probably having some issue with your firewall, or exports on the filer side.

6) This is the most critical part, here you will create the ssh directory and append your root public key to authorized_keys of the filer:

admin_host> mkdir -p /nfs/filer01/vol0/etc/sshd/root/.ssh/

admin_host> cat /root/.ssh/ >> /nfs/filer01/vol0/etc/sshd/root/.ssh/authorized_keys

7) Last, you may want to turn down rsh and telnet services (for obvious security reasons):

filer01> options rsh.enable off
filer01> options telnet.enable off

How to improve the Netapp storage performance

 How to improve the Netapp storage performance?

There is no direct answer for this question but we shall do it in several way.
If volume/lun present in ATA/SATA harddisk aggregate, then the volume can be migrated to FC/SAS disk aggregate.
For NFS/CIFS instead of accessing from single interface, multi mode vif can be configured to get better bandwidth and fault tolerance.
Always advised to keep aggr/vol utilization below 90%.
Avoid doing multiple volume backup in single point of time.
Aggr/volume/lun reallocation can be done to re–distribute the data to multiple disk for better striping performance.
Schedule scrubbing and deduplication scanning after business hours.
Avoid connecting different types of shelf in a same loop.
Avoid mixing up different speeds of disk and different types of disk in a same aggregate.
Always keep sufficient spare disk to replace incase of disk failure. Because reconstruction time will take more time and cause negative performance.
Keep the advised version of firmware/software which is recommended by netapp.
Better to have nearstore functionality to avoid backing up data from source filer.

Unable to map lun to solaris server, but solaris server side no issue. How to resolve the issue?

Verify iscsi/fcp license is added in storage
Verify iscsi/fcp session is logged in from server side
Verify luns are mapped to the corresponding igroup.
Verify whether correct host type is mentioned while creating igroup and lun
Verify whether correct iqn/wwpn number is added to igroup
Verify zoning is properly configured from switch side.
How to create the LUN for solaris server?
lun create –s size –t solaris /vol/vol1/lunname

How to create qtree and provide the security?

Qtree create /vol/vol1/qtreename
Qtree security /vol/vol1/qtree unix|ntfs|mixed

How to copy filer to filer?

ndmpcopy or snapmirror

How to resize the aggregate?

Aggr add agg(name) no.of.disk

How to increase the volume?


Vol add vol(name) no.of.disk


Vol size vol(name) +60g

What is qtree?

Qtree are Logical partition of the volume

What is the default snap reserve in aggregate?


What is snapshot?

Copy(read only) of active file system

What are the raid groups netapp supporting?, what is the difference between them?

Raid_dp(double parity,diagonal parity) ,raid4(striping&dedicated parity)
What are the protocols you are using?

Say some protocols like NFS, CIFS, ISCSI and FC
What is the difference between iscsi and fcp?

Iscsi-sending block through(tcp,ip)

Fcp-send through fibre medium
What is the iscsi port number your are using?

860 and 3260

What is the difference between ndmp copy and vol copy?

Ndmp copy –network data management protocol(used for tape backup)

Vol copy – is used to transfer volume to same or another aggr

What is the difference between ONTAP 7 & 8?

In ONTAP 7 the individual aggregate is limited to maximum of 16 TB. Where ONTAP 8 supports the new 64 bit aggregate and hence the size of the individual aggregate extends to 100 TB.

What are the steps need to perform to configure SnapMirror?

The SnapMirror configuration process consists of the following four steps:

a. Install the SnapMirror license on the source and destination systems: license add <code>

b. On the source, specify the host name or IP address of the SnapMirror destination systems you wish to authorize to replicate this source system.

options snapmirror.access host=dst_hostname1,dst_hostname2

c. For each source volume or qtree to replicate, perform an initial baseline transfer. For volume SnapMirror,

restrict the destination volume first: vol restrict dst_vol

Then initialize the volume SnapMirror baseline, using the following syntax on the destination:

snapmirror initialize -S src_hostname:src_v


For a qtree SnapMirror baseline transfer, use the following syntax on the destination:

snapmirror initialize –S src_hostname:/vol/src_vol/src_qtree


d. After the initial transfer completes, set the SnapMirror mode of replication by creating the

/etc/snapmirror.conf file in the destination’s root volume.

While doing baseline transfer you’re getting error message. What are the troubleshooting steps you’ll do?

Check both the hosts are reachable by running “ping” command
Check whether the TCP port 10566 & 10000 are open
Check whether the snapmirror license are installed in both and destination

Explain the different types of replication modes.

The SnapMirror Async mode replicates Snapshot copies from a source volume or qtree to a destination

volume or qtree. Incremental updates are based on a schedule or are performed manually using the

snapmirror update command. Async mode works with both volume SnapMirror and qtree SnapMirror.

SnapMirror Sync mode replicates writes from a source volume to a destination volume at the same time it is

written to the source volume. SnapMirror Sync is used in environments that have zero tolerance for data loss.

SnapMirror Semi-Sync provides a middle-ground solution that keeps the source and destination systems more

closely synchronized than Async mode, but with less impact on performance.

How do you configure multiple path in Snapmirror?

Add a connection name line in the snapmirror.conf file
FAS1_conf = multi (FAS1-e0a,FAS2-e0a) (FAS1-e0b,FAS2-e0b)

Explain how De-Duplication works?

In the context of disk storage, deduplication refers to any algorithm that searches for duplicate data objects (for example, blocks, chunks, files) and discards those duplicates. When duplicate data is detected, it is not retained, but instead a “data pointer” is modified so that the storage system references an exact copy of the data object already stored on disk. This deduplication feature works well with datasets that have lots of duplicated date (for example, full backups).

What is the command used to see amount of space saved using deduplication?

df –s <volume name>

Command used to check progress and status of deduplication?

sis status
How do you setup Snapvault Snapshot schedule?

pri> snapvault snap sched vol1 sv_hourly 22@0-22

This schedule is for the home directories volume vol1
Creates hourly Snapshot copies, except 11:00 p.m.
Keeps nearly a full day of hourly copies

What is metadata?

Metadata is defined as data providing information about one or more aspects of the data,

1. Inode file
2. Used block bitmap file
3. Free block bitmap file
How do you shutdown filer through RLM?

telnet “rlm ip address”
RLM_Netapp> system power on

After creating LUN (iSCSI) & mapped the lun to particular igroup, the client not able to access the LUN. What are the trouble shooting steps you take?

Check whether IQN number specified is correct
Check whether the created LUN is in “restrict” mode
Check the iscsi status

In CIFS how do you check who is using most?

Cifs top

How to check cifs performance statistics

cifs stat

What do you do if a customer reports a particular CIFS share is responding slow?

Check the r/w using "cifs stat" & "sysstat -x 1".
If disk & cpu utilization is more then problem is with filer side only.
CPU utilization will be high if more disk r/w time, i.e.,during tapeback up & also during scrub activities.

what is the degraded mode? You have parity for failed disks then why the filer goes to degraded mode?

If the spare disk is not added within 24hours,then filer will be shutdown auomatically to avoid further disk failures and data loss.

Did you ever do ontap upgrade? From which version to which version and for what reason?

Yes i have done ontap upgrade from version to 7.3.3 due to lot of bugs in old version.

How do you create a lun ?

lun create -s <lunsize> -t <host type> <lunpath>

Production Manager?

Production manager will do the planning,co-ordinating and controlling the process.

Performance Manager?

Performance manager will analyses the performance trends of and services.

How do you monitor the filers?

Using DFM(Data Fabric Manager) or also using SNMP you can monitor the filer.

What are the prerequisites for a cluster?

cluster interconnect cable should be connected.

shelf connect should be properly done for both the controllers

cluster license should be enabled on both the nodes

Interfaces should be properly configured for fail over

cluster should be enabled

What are the scenarios you have for a cluster failover?

If disk shelf power or shelf port is down, then failover will not happen. It cannot access the mail box disk. Mail box disk stores the cluster configuration data.

What is the diff bet cf takeover and cf force takeover?

If partner shelf power is off (metrco cluster), the forcetakover will work else normal takeover will work.

Snap shot autodelete

Snap shot autodelete

1.0.1 The purpose of this policy is to provide guidance as to use the Netapp Default functioning of snapshot auto delete. Snapshot autodelete is a policy based space management feature that is implemented in Data ONTAP 7.1 in order to get back space in volume for user data. It allows the user to define a policy to automatically delete snapshots when the volume is nearly full. It keeps the amount of unused spaced in a filer to a minimum level. The snapshot autodelete is available for Flexible volumes only.

1.1 Scope

1.1.1 This policy applies to all the volumes in Netapp Filer which are upgraded to Data ONTAP 7.1 ( and subsequent Data ONTAP versions)

1.2 When Does Snapshot Delete Happen

1.2.1 When the “trigger” criteria is near full.
Volume: The volume is near full
Snap_reserve: The reserve is near full
Space_reserve: The Space reserved is near full.

1.2.2 What defines “near full” ?
By Default near full is defined as 98%
Default is controlled by the flag “wafl_reclaim_threshold”

1.2.3 How to change the Default “wafl_reclaim_threshold” value ?
Priv set diag
Setflag wafl_reclaim_threshold 

1.3 When Does Sanpshot Autodelete Stop ?
1.3.1 Once autodelete starts, explicit conditions need to be met to stop autodelete

1.3.2 When the free space in the “trigger” criteria reaches a particular user specified percentage, the snashot autodelete stops.

1.3.3 This percentage is controlled by the value of “target_free_space”. Default value of target_free_space is 20%

1.4 What Snapshots is autodelete allowed to delete ?

1.4.1 The user can protect certain kinds of snapshots by deferring their delete.
1.4.2 The “commitment” option defines this:
“try”: Delete snapshots which are not being used by any data mover, recovery or clones. (NOT LOCKED)
“disrupt”: Delete snapshots locked by datamovers – snap mirror, dump/restore ( Mirror, Dumps are aborted )
1.4.3 Snapshots locked by clones, snap restores, cifs shares are not deleted.
1.4.4 “disrupt” snapshots are only deleted if there are no “try” snapshots left to delete.

1.5 In what order are the snapshots deleted ?

1.5.1 The “Delete_order” option defines the age order. If the value is set to:
“oldest_first”: Delete older snapshots first.
“newest_first”: Delete new snapshots first.

1.5.2 The “Defer_delete” option defines the order on ‘name’. If defers the deletion
Of the snapshots to the end. If the value is set to:
“scheduled”: Delete the scheduled snapshots last. ( Identified by the scheduled snapshot naming convention)
“User_created”: Delete the user created snapshots last. Note: User_created here refer to everything-that-is-not-snap-sched-created-by-Data ONTAP itself.
“prefix”: Delete the snapshots with names matching the “prefix” string last.

1.5.3 The “Prefix” option value pair is only considered when “defer_delete” is set to
“prefix”. Otherwise it is ignored.

1.6 The Hierarchy for selection snapshots on different criteria is as follows:

1.6.1 commitment
1.6.2 defer_delete
1.6.3 delete_orader


Auto delete will first delete a “try” snashot which does not lie in the “defer_delete”
Criteria and is the oldest such snapshot. If such a snapshot is not found, the
“defer_delete” criteria would be ignored to find a snapshot. Lastly we would move
To the “disrupt” criteria (if commitment=disrupt) and attempt to find a snapshot.

1.7.1 snap autodelete vol1 on --- enables autodelete
1.7.2 snap autodelete vol1 off --- disables autodelete
1.7.3 snap autodelete vol1 show - shows the current settings
1.7.4 snap autodelete vol1 reset - resets all autodelete options to default for vol1
1.7.5 snap autodelete vol1 help - shows help commands


1.8.1 snap autodelete
snap autodelete [on off show reset help]
snap autodelete

Quick Guide to Setting up NetApp Deduplication

NetApp made the NearStore option, which was a prerequisite for deduplication, free. Since NearStore is a prerequisite, you’ll need to be sure to license that first:
license add <Code for NearStore>
license add <Code for Deduplication>
Once deduplication is licensed, then you can enable it on a per-volume basis using the “sis on” command:
sis on /vol/<volname>
Note, however, that the volume cannot exceed a certain size, based on the storage system model, in order for deduplication to work. These volume size limits are laid out in TR3505. Note that the volume must never have been any bigger than the size limits described, so this means you can’t size it down to the limits set forth and then run deduplication.
Once it’s running, you can check the status with:
sis status /vol/<volname>
After it’s finished running, you can see your space savings like this:
df -s /vol/<volname>
After running deduplication on a small NFS volume that housed only three VMs, the “df -s” command showed a space savings of 64%. That’s pretty impressive!
Moving forward, deduplication will run automatically every night at midnight, as shown by this command:
sis config /vol/<volname>
That should be enough to get most everyone started. Feel free to post comments or corrections below.

Managing LUN Space Requirements with NetApp Storage

If you’ve worked with Network Appliance storage before, you’re probably already familiar with the idea of snap reserve (storage space set aside to accommodate for Snapshots) and fractional reserve (used with LUNs). I’m going to hold the in-depth discussion of why you need snap reserve and fractional reserve for a different day, but I did want to pass on these commands that were shared with me by a colleague of mine. These Data ONTAP commands, available with Data ONTAP 7.2 or later (some commands are available in Data ONTAP 7.1), will help you manage the space requirements for LUNs on a NetApp storage area network (SAN).
I’ll try to explain the commands along the way, but I would recommend you review the documentation available from the NOW site for more complete information.
vol options <volname> fractional_reserve 0
This command sets the fractional reserve to zero percent, down from the default of 100 percent. Note that fractional reserve only applies to LUNs, not to NAS storage presented via CIFS or NFS.
snap autodelete <volname> trigger snap_reserve
This sets the trigger at which Data ONTAP will begin deleting Snapshots. In this case, Snapshots will start getting deleted when the snap reserve for the volume gets nearly full. The current size of the snap reserve can be viewed for a particular volume with the “snap reserve <volname>” command.
snap autodelete <volname> defer_delete none
This command instructs Data ONTAP not to exhibit any preference in the types of Snapshots that are deleted. Options for this command include “user_created” (delete user-created Snapshot copies last) or “prefix” (Snapshot copies with a specified prefix string).
snap autodelete <volname> target_free_space 10
With this setting in place, Snapshots will be deleted until there is 10% free space in the volume.
snap autodelete <volname> on
Now that the Snapshot autodelete options have been configured, this command will actually turn the functionality on.
vol options <volname> try_first snap_delete
When a FlexVol runs into an issue with space, this option tells Data ONTAP to first try to delete Snapshots in order to free up space. This command works in conjunction with the next command:
vol autosize <volname> on
This enables Data ONTAP to automatically grow the size of a FlexVol if the need arises. This command works hand-in-hand with the previous command; Data ONTAP will first try to delete Snapshots to free up space, then grow the FlexVol according to the autosize configuration options. Between these two options—Snapshot autodelete and volume autogrow—you can reduce the fractional reserve from the default of 100 and still make sure that you don’t run into problems taking Snapshots of your LUNs.
If you have a NOW login, you can get more information on Snapshot autodelete here; more information on volume autogrow is available here. Be aware that SnapDrive may require different settings in order to accommodate its functionality, as it moves LUN management out of the storage system and onto the host. Finally, the values presented here are only examples; be sure to use values that are appropriate for your environment.